the old culture from balinese and all i know will show in this blog

Friday, 7 May 2010

The Cycle of Galungan and Kuningan Celebration Day

Galungan & Kuningan is a Balinese holiday that occurs every 210 days and lasts for 10 days. Kuningan is the last day of the holiday. Following are the details of days that lead up to the celebration of Galungan and Kuningan.

Sugian Jawa (Wrespathi Wage Sungsang)
Six days before Galungan Day which falls on Thursday (Wrespathi). It is the day to purify ‘Bhuwana Agung’ (bhuwana means world; agung means big), the day when Gods and Goddesses accompanied by holy ancestral spirits (pitara) come down to earth to bless the universe. On this day, Pengerebon offering and puspa wewangian (fragrance flowers) are dedicated to the Gods and holy ancestral spirits in the family shrines.

Sugian Bali (Sukra Keliwon Sungsang)
Five days before Galungan Day which falls on Friday (Sukra). It is the day to purify ‘Bhuwana Alit’ (alit means small) or human’s body and soul. During this day, Balinese people purify themselves by praying and concentrating minds to God Almighty. On this day, it is suggested to visit temples for praying and learning more deeply about the holy book of Weda.

Saniscara Umanis Sungsang
Four days before Galungan Day which falls on Saturday (Saniscara). It is the day to prepare the celebration of Galungan Day, the day to prepare mentally and physically in peace, patience, alertness and devotion. On this day, the women usually make ‘banten’ (offering made of young coconut leaves, flowers, and others).

Penyekeban / Penapean (Redite Pahing Dungulan)
Three days before Galungan Day which falls on Sunday (Redite). It is the day when Balinese people start meditation (yoga semadhi). It is believed that on this day, Sang Kala Tiga Wisesa or Bhuta Galungan is around humans to seduce them to do bad things.

This day is called ‘Penyekeban’ because on this day, people start to make cakes and keep the banana to be used as offerings on Galungan Day. The word ‘penyekeban’ is derived from ‘sekeb’ which means ‘keep’.

This day is also called ‘Penapean’ which is derived from ‘tape’. On this day, the women make ‘tape’, a typical food for Galungan celebration, which is made of slightly fermented rice or tubers.

Penyajaan Galungan (Soma Pon Dungulan)
Two days before Galungan Day which falls on Monday (Soma). The word ‘Penyajaan’ is derived from ‘jaja’ which means ‘cake’. On this day, various cakes in shapes and colors are made for offerings.

Penampahan (Anggara Wage Dungulan)
One day before Galungan Day which falls on Tuesday (Anggara). The word ‘Penampahan’ is derived from ‘tampah’ which means ‘slaughter’. It is the day when people slaughter their bad behaviors, bad thoughts, bad manners and bad words which is symbolized by slaughtering animals for offerings, mostly pig.

It is believed that the hardest seduction from Bhuta Amangkurat occurs on this day. Therefore, Bhuta Yadnya (holy sacrifice) is done for the harmonic balance between the visible and the invisible world.

On this day, people also should make ‘penjor’, a bamboo pole beautifully decorated by young coconut leaves and various ornaments. It is put up in front of every house and building, symbolizing the great Mount Agung, and the presence of God Almighty. Various leaves, plantations, crops, fruits and traditional cakes in diverse shapes and colors beautify the bamboo pole which means that every element of the world is represented in ‘penjor’. It also shows the gratitude upon God Almighty because all things available on earth come from God.

Galungan (Buda Keliwon Dungulan)
Galungan Day, which falls on Wednesday (Buda), is a joyful day to celebrate the victory of goodness (dharma) against evil (adharma). On this day, offerings and praying are made to God and holy ancestral spirits who come down to earth. People who live in the city usually go to their hometown to visit their family and the elders.

Umanis Galungan (Wrespati Umanis Galungan)
One day after Galungan Day which falls on Thursday (Wrespati). It is the celebration day, the day to enjoy the blessings. The offerings are taken out from the shrines and the people may enjoy the offerings of fruits and cakes. It is also the day to visit family, relatives or friends, to apologize for anything that may went wrong as well as to forgive others’ mistakes.

In some areas in Bali, there is a tradition of ‘ngelawang’ (art performance around village) which usually features ‘barong ket’ or ‘barong landung’.

Pahing Galungan (Sukra Pahing Dungulan)
Two days after Galungan Day which falls on Friday (Sukra). It is the day when Balinese people are still in alert with pure heart. During this day, people pray in temples or family shrines.

Pamaridan Guru (Saniscara Pon Dungulan)
Three days after Galungan Day which falls on Saturday (Saniscara). It is the day when Gods and Goddess return to heaven, accompanied by the holy ancestral spirits (pitara). It is the day when God bestows prosperity to mankind. On this day, Balinese people do tirtha yatra (visit to temples), making offerings and prayers.

Ulihan (Redite Wage Kuningan)
Four days after Galungan which falls on Sunday (Redite). It is the day when Balinese people honor the holy ancestral spirits (pitara) who has left earth and continue their duty to fight for the truth (dharma). On this day, people concentrate their mind to God Almighty and to holy ancestral spirits, asking for blessing and keeping away from disasters or bad things.

Pemacekan Agung (Soma Keliwon Kuningan)
Five days after Galungan Day or five days before Kuningan Day which falls on Monday (Soma). The word ‘pemacekan’ is derived from 'pacek' which means the middle. On this day, Balinese people are in the middle of the purity of the heart. It is the day to pray for good will and the purity of the heart. As this day is considered as the highlight of holiness, Segehan Agung (big offering) is put in front of the main gate.

Anggara Umanis Kuningan
Four days before Kuningan Day which falls on Tuesday (Anggara). It is the day when Balinese people do various preparations for the upcoming Kuningan Day.

Pujawali Bhatara Wisnu (Buda Pahing Kuningan)
Three days before Kuningan Day which falls on Wednesday (Buda). It is the day when the protector of the universe, God Wisnu, comes down to earth. On this day, Balinese people worship God Wisnu, the Great Preserver of the Universe, for the protection of the world.

Penyajaan Kuningan (Wrespati Pon Kuningan)
Two days before Kuningan Day which falls on Thursday (Wrespati). It is a preparation day for Kuningan.

Penampahan Kuningan (Sukra Wage Kuningan)
One day before Kuningan Day which falls on Friday (Sukra). It is the day to do various preparations especially the offerings for the religious celebration of Kuningan Day.

Tumpek Kuningan (Saniscara Kliwon Kuningan)
Kuningan, which falls on Saturday (Saniscara), is the day when Gods and Goddesses accompanied by the holy ancestral spirits (pitara) come down to earth again to bless the people and the universe. It is believed that they will return to heaven in the midday.
On this day, Balinese people do self-introspection by doing a meditation for human's prosperity. Segehan Agung (big offering) is put on the house yard and offerings for the family members are also served.

Pegat Wakan (Buda Kliwon Pahang)
This day is the end of meditation that has been done for 42 days since Sugian Jawa. On this day, Balinese people dedicate sesayut dirghayusa and penyeneng offerings to the Supreme God, Hyang Widhi Wasa. Penjors in front of houses or buildings are put down, and then burned.